VMware jumped on the software-defined networking bandwagon with its acquisition of Nicira Networks Inc. in August 2012, which was also the vendor's largest purchase to date at $1.2 billion. Nicira's Network Virtualization Platform (NVP) creates an abstraction layer between a physical network and the virtual switches deployed on hypervisor hosts. It uses controller software to provision and manage virtual networking services for virtual server workloads without regard to the type of network hardware. This gives VMware the tools to create multi-tenant cloud data centers and to manage tenant and application connectivity with complete independence using cloud-integrated tools. Network-partitioned multi-tenancy is a requirement shared by buyers and sellers of cloud services.